Buddhist World For All Being to be warmly welcome Here, Gift Men Seize Time And Work As Their Opportunity, They made Them Great And Crown

Sunday, December 11, 2011

Payasi Rajannya Sutta

Kumara Kassapa, accompanied by an assembly of five hundred Bhikkhus, came to the town of Setavvya in Kosala. At that time Prince Payasi was residing in Setavvya. The Prince had such a wrong Philosophic view : There is no other world; no beings arise again after death, there are no consequenceness f good or bad deads.
Prince Payasi visited Venerable Kumara Kassapa and maintained before him the philosophic view he had adhered to for so long. He told him about all the experiments he had done so far. He had asked some friends of his at their death-bed, to come back and tell him the news of the other world, but none of them had ever come back to tell him about it.
Venerable Kumara Kassapa explained to him, by means of several similes, that this world does exist, that the other called Paraloka, and the fruits of one’s good and evil actions also exist. At least Prince Payasi admitted his error and accepted the discipleship of the Bhikkhus. After death, Payasi was born among the heavenly beings known as the Maharajaka of the Four Quarters.

Wednesday, November 23, 2011

Sitagu Donation Ceremony

သီတဂူ အာယုဒါန အလွဴေတာ္

Tuesday, November 8, 2011

Mahasatipatthãna Sutta

While the Buddha was sojourning through the market town known as Kammãsa dhamma, in the Kuru country, he addressed the Bhikkhus thus, "Bhikkhus, this is the one and only way for the purification (of the minds) of beings, for overcoming sorrow and lamentation, for the complete destruction of (physical) pain and (mental) distress, for attainment of the noble (ariya) Magga, and for the realization of Nibbãna. That (only way) is the practice of the four methods of steadfast Mindfulness (Satipatthãna)."
These four Methods of steadfast Mindfulness are the contemplation of the body, contemplation of feeling (sensation), contemplation of the mind, and contemplation of the Dhamma, with constant awareness.
Kãyãnupassanã (awareness of the Body) : Here the Bhikkhu should either go to a forest, or beneath a tree, or to an empty, solitary place and then sit cross-legged, keeping the body erect, and the mind alert and awake. With constant awareness he inhales and with constant awareness he exhales. This process is called Anãpãna-Sati.
Again he should be fully aware when he is walking, sitting down, and standing up. Whatever position he is in, he should be constantly aware of it, as it is.
Again he should constantly be aware when he advances. He should be aware when he looks straight or sideways. He should be fully aware when he contracts or straightens his arms and legs. He should be constantly aware while defecating and urinating. In walking, standing up, sitting down, lying, awakening from sleep, in talking, in keeping silent, and doing such things, he should be fully aware of what he is doing.

Saturday, November 5, 2011

16. Mahaparinibbana Sutta

When the Buddha was dwelling at Gijjhakuta in Rajagriha, Ajatasatru, the King of Magadha, sent his minister Vassakara to the Blessed One for his council regarding the King’s intended invasion of the Vajja country. The Buddha did not give any direct answer to the minister but indirectly hinted at the invicibility of the Vajjis. This was on the occasion of the preaching of seven invincible rules which were applicable both to the cohesion of the Vajji Republic and the Sangha of the Bhikkhus.
The Buddha drew the attention of Ven. Ananda to the seven invincible Virtues or Norms (Aparihaniya Dhammas) which the Vijjis were possessed of. He further explained the five categories of these Dhammas, each having seven-fold feature which the Bhikkhus are required to be endowed with, also adding. One more category having six-fold feature. The possession of these Dhammas, the Buddha said, would lead them to their furtherance, not to their fall.
Therefrom the Buddha went to Ambalatthika garden. There, too, he taught, as in Rajagriha, the fruits and merits of conduct (Sila), meditation(Samadhi) and Wisdom (Prajna), which would influence and completely relieve the mind from defilements.
Thereupon the Buddha went from Rajagriha to Ambalatthika garden, where he preached a sermon to the Bhikkhus on the merits of a moral life and the failings of an immoral one, culminating in the final precept.
From there, the Buddha came over to the mango-grave of Pavarika at Nalanda. There, Venerable Sariputta appoached him and proclaimed with a lion’s roar that there was none other than the Blessed One who is endowed with the graduated knowledge concerning Enlightenment. He however admitted that he had said so not entirely on the basis of the knowledge which is obtained by inference, but from personal experience.
From Nalanda the Buddha went to Pataligama. There he preached to all his disciples five defects of an immoral life and five qualities of a moral one. At that time, Sunidha and Vassakara, the chief ministers of Magadha were building a fortress at Pataligama in order to prevent the Vajjis from encroachment. They invited the Buddha and his disciples for meals at their residence. After the meals, they followed him and named the gate through which he passed on as the ‘Gotama Gate’ and the ford on which he crossed the Ganges the ‘Gotama Tirtha.’
Reaching the other side of the Ganges, the Buddha stayed at Kotigama. There he preached on the importance of the four noble truths, due to the ignorance of which one reverts to the round of rebirths. Due to knowledge of these four truths, one attains liberation from the bondage of the world of rebirths.
From Kotigama the Buddha came to Natika village. There he told of the destiny of the bhikkhus, bhikkhunies and other lay disciples who had already passed to the other world. These destiny are said to be situated in the other world, where the departed ones dwell after their decease from this material world. He was evidently tired of talking about such abodes of his departed disciples and hence preaches the mirror of Dhamma, which would enable anyone, desirous of knowing the abodes of the departed ones in the other world, to know such abodes by themselves.
Such destiny chiefly are those of hell, those of beasts, those of spirits (Petas) and those of the lower and higher stages. These categories of abodes in the next world after one’s decease shows that these abodes fall under varied stages of development or degradation. By this mirror of Dhamma one may also know if one has reached a stage towards enlightenment.
The Buddha went from Natika to Vesali. There he preached on the topic of memory and comprehension of movement. Ambapali, the courtesan of the city of Vesali, invited the Buddha with the entire Sangha for a grand dinner the next day. The Buddha accepted it. The nobles of Vesali offered her millions of rupees, if she would sell this opportunity to them, but she would not do so for any price. She donated her mango grove to the Buddha and his Sangha.

Monday, October 31, 2011

Tevijja Sutta from Silakkhanda Sutra

The Buddha was then residing in the Mango-grove situated along the bank of Aciravati River north of Manasakata village, in the kingdom of Kosala. Manasakata was then the seat of the renowned Brahmanas such as, Canki, Tarukkha, Pokkharasati, Janussoni, Todeyya, and others.
One day, a very controversial discussion took place between two young Brahmana students, Vasettha and Bharadvaja, concerning the way to reach the spiritual realm of Brahma-loka. Neither of them could convince the other. In the end, both of them decided to go to the Buddha for the final word and approached him with their problem.
This was the problem : “There are many and different paths, but the destination, which the various paths lead to, is one and the same.” With this belief and in order to reach the unified realm of Brahma, the Vedic Brahmanas such as Addhvariya, Tittiriya, etc had perhaps taught these different ways. But the Buddha wanted to examine the veracity of such an assertion with the two young controversialists.
The Buddha, by his usual critical method of dialogues, showed plainly that belief was far from the truth. “Those of the Vedic Brahmanas who advocate such an assertion have neither seen the Brahma directly, nor have they ever claimed that they have done so. Not even the later Brahmanas, who know all three Vedas including their accessories, have seen the Brahma directly, nor have they ever claimed to. None of the teachers, nor any of the their teachers had done so. Not even the teachers '7' seven generations before have seen him or claimed to have seen him. So, no one has ever seen Brahma nor known with whom is he living, nor his whereabouts.”

Friday, October 28, 2011

Lohicca Sutta from Silakkhandha Atthakatha

The Buddha who was travelling in the country of Kosala with an assembly of five hundred Bhikkhus, reached Salavatika. There lived Lohicca, a much honoured Brahmana leader. He had received rich grants of land and property from Pasenadi, the king of Kosala. Lohicca held a gravely erroneous view, which he propounded as follows : ‘Even if there are any Bhikkhus or Brahmanas who have realized the truth and followed it in practice, they should not teach others the same, for how can one help another in such a matter ? It is just like to be free from the old tether to be tethered to a new one. Hence it appears to me to be an act of grud in the name of religion. For, how can one help another in such a matter ?”

Sunday, October 23, 2011

Buddhist Attitude to Politics Agganna Sutra

Buddhist Attitude to Politics Aggañña Sutta _7_

How to make the research proposal

At the basic of research, it is necessary to prepare a research proposal. Proposal means how to find out the research problem also one should find the problem but it is easy if we can prepare proposal properly, one thing our research is finished. Therefore, we try to propose the research in order to propose we must understand and we have to study the research for the publication etc. We clarify in ourselves exactly what our specific areas of study explain it in a logical form. We must consider our skills to keep our eyes and ears open for important issues and ask the expert. We must define a problem and make hypotheses. Depend on that, formulate the topic of research procedure, create problem. Then, arrange our background experience etc.
        We must explain our research will help to the research who benefit. We must decide the problem can be researched, workability, information where from and how we can get it, what we will do, when we have got it, who we will need to consult and what equipment we need. We must find out most suitable research methods to get the information chose the suitable methods, describe them briefly and explain that kind of information each will produce. We must describe expected arising and the conclusions we will be presented. We can select a suitable title based on own idea. The proposal may vary according to those kinds of research historical, aim and objectives etc. The common form of research proposal are an application, in a compact manner, of the nature of research, needed reason, the way to make, arising and resources need carrying out.  (1) Mean of communication from the researcher to applicator and other. (2) A plan for action to describe the scope, aims, objectives, one by one procedure and expected arising. (3) A contract that will form the basis of agreement both the parties of involved.

Research Ethic Methodology

              Now, in this world there are full of ethics such as medical ethics, legal ethics of lawyers, and environmental ethics of all of us to research ethics of researcher. The behavior of a human is primarily determined by two factors, those of law established by particular government and morality accepted by the society.
            The subject that studied of the concept of moral principle and moral rules of good conduct accepted by a certain culture or society is the meaning of that `Ethic `. Research ethic involves the application of basic ethical principle to scientific and academic research. The integrity of any research depends on not only its scientific arrange but on its ethical sufficiency also. Ethical issues are variety and may be quite multipart. All research should be guided by a set of basic ethical principles to guarantee the protection of human participants.
            The reasons why it is important to obey the ethical norms in research are; (1) some norm can give rise the research aims such as; knowledge, truth and avoidance of error (2) as a deal of cooperation and coordination among people involves in research, ethical standards encourage the values to collaborate work, trust, accountability, mutual respect, and fairness (3) the ethical norms ensure that researcher can be held accountable to the public (4) ethical norms assist to build public support for research. Finally, research norms promote other moral and social values, social responsibility, human rights, animal welfare, compliance with the law, and safety.

Thursday, October 20, 2011

11. Kevatta Sutra from Silakkhandha Atthakatha

11. Kevatta Sutta

The Buddha was residing in the Mango-grove of Pavarika in Nalanda. Then Kevatta, a young householder man of that locality, came to the Buddha and said : “Lord, this town of Nalanda is very prosperous and it is also thickly populated. The inhabitants here are favourably disposed towards you, O Lord. Let the Lord order a Bhikkhu to exhibit some feats of superhuman conduct here in public. For it will be good.” But the Buddha did not approve of such a request; he said : “It is liable to be misunderstood by the people as black magic such as Gandhari and Manika.” It was for such reasons that Buddha did not permit anyone to perform such feats of psychic potency.
Then the Buddha narrated how a certain Bhikkhu had asked the question, “Where do the four elements, earth, water, fire, and air cease without the least remainder ?” By his superhuman powers, the Bhikkhu had approached the divine beings of higher and higher heavens and demanded a definite answer to this question from them. None of them, however, could satisfy him. Ultimately, on the advice of the Maha-Brahma, the Bhikkhu returned to the Buddha for an answer to his question. So spoke the Buddha of that memorable event. The Buddha chided the Bhikkhu for his enquiry elsewhere and explained the matter to him thus :


Abhidharmakosabhasyam,Vol 4,Vasubandhu,Poussin,Pruden,1991

10. Subha Sutra

10. Subha Sutta

Some days after the Buddha’s Parinibbana, Ananda, the attendant Bhikkhu, was staying at the Monastery of Anathapindika in the Jeta Grone at Savatthi. At that time Subha, the son of Todeyya Brahmana, was also in Savatthi on certain business of his own.
Subha, the young Brahmana student, sent someone to Venerable Ananda, with an invitation to visit him at his home. Venerable Ananda, however, could not accept the invitation on that day and sent the messenger back with word that he might come there only on the following day.
The next day, accompanied by a Bhikkhu from the Cetiya country as his attendant he went to the house of Subha. The question Subha asked was this : “You, Venerable Ananda, were the attendant of the Blessed One for a long time. You accompanied Gotama, the Blessed One, and were always at his side. You must know which doctrine was much praised by Gotama, the Blessed one. Which doctrine was it that he believed people should adopt ? And which doctrine was it that he established ?”

9. Potthapada Sutra from Silakkhandha Atthakatha

9. Potthapada Sutta

The Buddha was staying at the Monastery of Anathapindika in the Jeta Grove at Savatthi. At that time Potthapada, the wandering philosopher, was staying in the Ekasala Hall built by Queen Mallika. He had gathered three thousand wandering ascetics around him, who were moisily discussing worldly topics of little value.
The Buddha went to Potthapada and was told by him that the wanderers were speaking of these trivial worldly subjects. But he informed the Buddha that he had been once in another gathering and heard the subject of the cessation of consciousness being debated. Some said that our consciousness itself is our soul. Some said that all these are the play of those who have spiritual powers. Nothing was definitely proved. Hence he asked this same question of the Buddha. The Buddha answered: “These theories are all merely blind-faith.” Then the Buddha began to speak of how one would practise and attain the Cessation of Consciousness (Nirodha-samapatti). Then in such a state the yogin or yogavacara would think thus :
“It is extremely improper for me to think; it is proper for me not to think. Hence he would not think, nor try to create anything mentally. Thus finally he would reach the cessation of consciousness.”
Leaving this serious talk aside, Potthapada began to mention the metaphysical questions not explicated by the Buddha. “Is the universe imperishable or perishable; is it terminable, or interminable; are the Life Principle (Jiva) and the body the same, or different; after his demise does the Tathagata exist, and so on ?”
The Buddha had, however, pronounced these questions Avyakrita, that is, not to be defined. For the Buddha explicated said : “This is neither purposeful, nor useful for any religious point, nor useful for the primordial ascetic life, nor conducine to indifference, nor leading to renunciation desirelessness, nor to cessation of psychic process, nor for being calm, nor for supernormal power, nor to the perfect enlightenment, nor of any purpose in attaining Nibbana. The Buddha had, rather, fully explicated the four noble truths : ‘This is suffering, this is the cause of suffering, this is the cessation of suffering, this is the path leading to the cessation of suffering.”

Wednesday, October 19, 2011




Tomorrow will be my birthday on 20- oct- 2011.
I may wish the best for all of you and all beings.

Firstly, I pay homage to the Buddha. I pay homage to the Dhamma. 
I pay homage to the Sangha. I pay homage to the parent and 
I pay homage to the teachers and preachers. 

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Jaliya Sutra & Mahasihanada Sutra From Silakkhanda Atthakatha

7. Jaliya Sutta
The Buddha was staying in the Monastery built by Ghosita near Kosambi. There were two wanderering ascetics named Mundiya and Jaliya, disciples of a guru who, because of his wooden begging bowl was known as Darupattika. They went to the Buddha and asked him : “Venerable Gotama, is the the soul was the physical body, or the physical body the soul, or whether the soul was one thing and the physical body another ?”
The Buddha replied that such a question would occur only to those who are in the darkness of ignorance. He further preached to them that the question of whether the soul and the body are the same or different did not trouble an Arhat, one who is liberated of all defilements.
8. Mahasihanada Sutta

The Buddha was dwelling near the town of Urunna, in Kannakatthala Migadaya, an area reserved for the Deer Park. At that time a naked ascetic, named Kassapa of the wanderers’ sect, was living in the same place. This ascetic went to visit the Buddha and asked him : “I have heard, Oh Gotama, that the ascetic Gotama denounces all austerities. Is this a fact or not ?”

Seventy Three Kinds Of Knowledge

Seventy Three Kinds of Knowledge

Guide Through the Abhidhamma Pitaka

Guide Through the Abhidhamma Pitaka

Sunday, October 16, 2011

6. Mahali Sutta

When the Buddha, with the assembly of Bhikkhus, was dwelling in the Kutagarasala of the great forest in Vesali, Mahali otthaddha, the Slit-Lip Licchavi ruler, came there with a great number of companions; he approached Nagita, the attendant bhikkhu. He expressed his desire to see the Buddha. Sinha, a student-disciple, came up to Nagita and begged on behalf of all the audience, to see the Buddha. He had his wish fulfilled, and the Buddha came out of his room.
Then Mahali put a question to the Buddha about a complaint made by Sunakkhatta, Licchavi-prince. About three years before, he had left the Order of Bhikkhus and become a householder. His complaint was simply this. He had seen the spiritual sights through the practice of meditation but could not hear the spiritual sounds. So Mahali asked the Buddha : “Lord, is it due to the non-existence of such sounds that he could not hear them, or did he not hear them, even though they actually existed ?”

Saturday, October 15, 2011

Kutadanta Sutta

There was a Brahmana named Kutadanta, honoured and patronised by Seniya Bimbisara, the king of Magadha, living in Khanumata, a Brahmana village in the country of Magadha. He was preparing for a great sacrifice in which a large number of beasts would be killed : seven hundred oxen, seven hundered caves, seven hundred cows, and seven hundred sheep. At that time, the Buddha, touring Magadha with an assembly of five hundred Bhikkhus was staying at Ambalatthika in Khanumata.
Kutadanta, having heard that the Buddha knew the triple sacrifice with its sixteen accessories, wanted to go to him in order to learn how to perform the sacrifice properly. He was, however, prevented from doing so by other Brahmanas. He convinced them of the desirability of doing so by recounting the Buddha’s good qualities as Sonadanda had done. He went to the Buddha and enquired about the triple sacrifice with its sixteen accessories.
The Buddha, in the course of answering Kutadanta’s question, gave him a full account of the ideal sacrifice as performed in the remote past by King Mahavijita. Following the advice of his Brahmana priests, the king eradicated the poverty of the people, and removed the roots of corruption, theft, and other evils. Thus, King Vijita the Great was certainly worthy to offer such an ideal sacrifice. Similarly, the chief priest who initiated him was worthy.
Kutadanta was overjoyed to hear such an account of the ideal sacrifice recounted by the Buddha. He asked : “Lord, is there another sacrifice of much less troubles but of much more fruit ?”
Thereupon the Buddha preached the Dhamma gradually, from the beginning to the experience of liberation.

A synoptic outline of the Suttas contained in the Digha Nikaya (a) Silakkhandha Vagga

4. Sonadanda Sutta

While on tour, accompanied by five hundred Bhikkhus, the Buddha came to stay at the corner of a pond named Gaggara in the city of Champa, in Anga country. At that time there lived one Sonadanda, a Brahmana honoured by Seniya Bimbisara, the King of Magadha. He wanted to visit the Buddha. Other Brahmanas under him, when they heard of Sonadanda’s desire, not only advised him not to do so but also tried to prevent him from fulfilling this wish.
They reasoned with him thus : “You, Sonadanda Brahmana, will lose prestige by visiting the Buddha, while that of the Buddha will increase. For this reason it would be more proper for the Buddha to come to visit you”. Sonadanda was not inclined to follow their advice against his intended visit; and began to speak well of the Buddha in various ways. He argued thus : “The Buddha has come here to our country as a guest. As such, we are bound to show him respect. We should respect, revere, honour, venerate him and show him every politeness. Having spoken thus, he then recounted several good qualities present in the Buddha without limit.
After this Sonadanda Brahmana went to where the Buddha was said to sojourn at that time. But he suffered great mental distress as he considered what question he should ask of the Buddha. “Brahmana, this question should not be asked like this.” Such, a response from the Buddha might make the great gathering of visitors tease him. These thoughts made him nervous. If he should return without speaking a word to the Buddha, that again would lead to a decline in others’ respect for Sonadanda. With such doubts he reached the Buddha. The Buddha, the Blessed One, knew his doubts and questioned him on a subject in which Sonadanda was well versed : “Brahmana, what are the distinctive qualities that make one a true Brahmana ?”
The answer of the Brahmana was : “The distinctive qualities of a true Brahmana are the followings : (1) His parents are to be of noble descent’ (2) He must be a master of the Vedas. (3) He must be handsome, attractive and dignified in bearing. (4) His character must be blameless and. (5) Lastly he must be full of wisdom and learning.
Thereupon, the Buddha, the Blessed One, asked him further : “Is it necessary for a true Brahmana to possess all these five qualities, or can one of these five be left out as not essential ?” Sonadonda agreed this could be so. In the same way, the Buddha asked whether two, or three, or four qualities might be regarded as not essential for a true Brahmana ? Sonadanda however came to take two of them as absolutely necessary, morality (Sila) and wisdom (Panna). Thus, under the pressure of critical questioning by the Buddha. Sonadanda had to abandon the caste system and accept morality (Sila) and pañña as essential for a true Brahman.

A synoptic outline of the Suttas contained in the Digha Nikaya (a) Silakkhandha Vagga

3. Ambattha Sutta

The Buddha was sojourning at Icchanangala, a village of Brahmans in Kosala country. At that time, there was a highly honoured Brahmana in that village named Pokkharasati. He sent a learned young disciple, Ambattha, to the Buddha in order to ascertain whether or not there were superior signs, thirty-two in number, in the body of the Buddha. Accompanied by his companions, Ambattha went to the Buddha. But, full of haughtiness stemming from his high caste status, he was not only impolite towards the Buddha, but he also disparaged the Shakyas as being inferior in caste and disrespectful to the Brahmanas, who are naturally higher.
When the Buddha found out that the Brahmana disciple belonged to the Vedic Gotra (descent) Kanhayana, he recounted a bit of vedic lore which indicated that Ambattha was descended from someone who had been a slave of the Shakyas. Kanha, according to this lore, was a bastard son of a slave girl belonging to King Okkaka, the ancestor of the Shakyas. This revelation put Ambattha to shame and he sat there crest-fallen. From another customary point of view, the Buddha also showed that the caste of the Shakyas was superior to that of the Brahmanas. In support of this, he quoted the saying of Sanatakumara, the Brahma of the Brahma-loka. The purport of the saying was that whoever was possessed of superior knowledge and right conduct would be the best among human and heavenly beings.

Tuesday, October 11, 2011

A synoptic outline of the Suttas contained in the Digha Nikaya (a) Silakkhandha Vagga

2. Sãmaññaphala Sutta

The Buddha was dwelling, with a great assembly of twelve hundred and fifty Bhikkhus in the Mango-grove of Jivaka, the Royal Physician.
On the night of the full-moon night of the month of Kartika, Ajatasattu, the King of Magadha, was sitting on the topmost terrace of his royal palace with his courtiers. The king exclaimed : “What a beautiful night it is ! Which of the saintly renunciants or Brahmans should be approached this day in order to listen to his spiritual discourse; a discourse which will readily gladden my mind ?”
Having heard what the king said, each one of the ministers praised his own teacher and advised the king to approach him. In all, six teachers were proposed by the king’s ministers : Purana Kassapa : Makkhali Gosala; Ajita Kesakambala; Pakudha Kaccayana; Sanjaya Belattaputta; and Nigantha Nataputta.
The king, however, addressed Jivaka, who had remained silent: “Dear Jivaka, why do you remain silent ?”
Thereupon Jivaka said to the king “The Exalted One, the homage Worthy, the perfectly Self Enlightened is at present dwelling in my mango grove. If he is approached by Your Majesty, he will surely gladden your mind.”
The king, having heard what Jivaka had to say, ordered him to make the necessary arrangements, which the physician quickly did. The king then set out for the place where the Buddha was said to be staying.
The king asked this question of the Buddha : “Lord, we who are in the world, earn merit by giving alms; thus, we make ourselves, parents, wives and children, friends and relatives content and happy by means of various sorts of business and professions. Even so, is there any directly observable fruit of the renunciated life to be obtained in this very life ?”
The Buddha asked the king what replies the others had given, when the king had put these same questions to them. Thereupon King Ajatasattu told him the answers which others had given in accordance to their respective doctrines. The king also admitted to the Buddha that their answers had left him dissatisfied.
( 5 ) The Buddha gave the king an example of an obedient slave : “If a slave of yours, after renouncing the household life, should enter the order of Bhikkhus, would Your Majesty wish to force him to return to the household life ?” The Buddha thus put the question to the king himself. The king answered : “We would, rather reverence or render service to him.”
Even if such is not so important materially, it is one fruit of the renunciated life directly observable to the naked eye.
The Buddha then presented an accurate picture of the renunciant’s life gradually, by answering these questions:
(I)                 How is the renunciated life to be assumed by a house-holder who has listened to the preaching of the Tathagata and renounced his former life ?
(II)               How is he to be possessed of the primary conduct, secondary conduct, and higher conduct by following its rules ?
(III)             How is he to be well contented by becoming fully aware of memory and bringing this awareness to bear on even the least operation of his mind after achieving the discipline of his six senses ?
(IV)           How is he to maintain mindfulness in Samadhi after attaining mental joy through eradication of the five Nivaranas, which are obstructions of Samadhi ? How is he to obtain the first, the second, the third, the fourth Jhana ?
(V)              How is he to be gradually possessed by discriminatory knowledge, (Vipassana Nana), mental supernormal knoledge (manomayiddhi Nana), knowledge of psychic powers (Iddhivida Nana), knowledge of Divine power of hearing (Dibbasota Nana), the ability to penetrate the mind of others, (Cetopariya Nana), the remembrance of past lives, (Pubbenevasanussati Nana), the knowledge that consists of supernormal sight (Dibbachakkhu Nana), etc. and then how is he finally to be liberated from birth, old age, and death by attaining the Nibbana Dhamma whereby he attains knowledge of being free form impurities and experiencing actual liberation from them in which there are no such defects; and how is he thus to experience liberation with the knowledge of the extinction of fundamental defects ? These were the serial precepts the Buddha preached that day to the assembly, including the king.

A synoptic outline of the Suttas contained in the Digha Nikaya

 (a) Silakkhandha Vagga 1. Brahmajala Sutta

It is a matter of great delight for me that I have been able to publish this present work — the Digha Nikãya, the first collection of Sutta Pitaka, one of three Divisions of the Buddhist canon (Tipitaka, i.e., the words of the Buddha in Nepali for the first time in Nepal just ten years after the Nepal Bhasa publication of it. In the Pali Tipitaka, an attempt has been made to collect all the sayings of the Buddha, the Blessed One, that is, whatever was preached by him in various places during the forty-five years from his Enlightenment to his passing away into the Great Nibbãna.
The sayings of the Buddha are preserved in three texts : (a) Sutta Pitaka, (b) Vinaya Pitaka, (c) Abhidhamma Pitaka. Thus, the whole is known as the Tipitaka.
Sutta Pitaka Vinaya Pitaka Abhidhamma Pitaka
1. Digha NikãyaΑ 1. Pãrãjika 1. Dhammasangani
2. Majjhima NikãyaΑ 2. Pãcittiya 2. Vibhanga
3. Samyutta NikãyaΑ 3. Mahãvagga 3. Dhãtukathã
4. Anguttara Nikãya 4. Culavagga 4. Puggalapaññatti
5. Khuddaka NikãyaΧ 5. Parivãra 5. Kathãvatthu

(I)                Khuddakapãtha 6. Yamaka
(II)             Dhammapada 7. Patthãna
(III)          Udãna
(IV)          ItivuttakaΑ
(V)             Suttanipãta
(VI)          Vimãnavatthu
(VII)       Petavatthu
(VIII)    Theragãthã
(IX)          Therigãthã
(X)             Jãtaka
(XI)          Niddesa (a) Mahãniddesa (b) Culaniddesa
(XII)       Patisambhidãmagga
(XIII)    Apadãna
(XIV)    Buddhavamsa
(XV)       Cariyãpitaka
Α Texts that have been published in Nepal Bhasa by Translator himself.
Χ The Sixth International Buddhist Synod had approved the following books : (1) Netti, (2) Petakopadesa and (3) Milinda Panha as a part of the Khuddaka Nikaya.

The Digha Nikaya consists of 34 long Suttas. It consists of three sections, Sila-kkhandha Vagga, Maha Vagga, and Pathika Vagga. The first of these is mainly concerned with conducts (Sila), concentration (Samadhi), and insight (panna). All the Suttas in the second Section, the Maha Vagga, have the prefix ‘Maha’, meaning ‘great’, excepting three, namely, Janavasabha, Sakka-Panha, and Payasi. The last sub-division of the Digha Nikaya, Pathika, gets its name from the fact that the first Sutta is called the Pathika Sutta. The number of Suttas in the Sila-kkhanda Vagga is 13, that in the Maha Vagga 10, and that in the Pathika Vagga 11. The Sila-kkhandha Vagga Suttas are generally in prose, while the Maha Vagga or the Pathika Vagga is a mixture of prose and poetry. There are 64 bhanavaras i.e. sections capable of the being recited at one sitting, in the Digha Nikaya.
Each Sutta of this Nikaya begins with the words, “Thus have I heard”. This refers to the fact that the Suttas are regarded as having been quoted by Ven. Ananda from his recallection of Ananda’s recollection of what he had heard from the Buddha, which he delivered at the first Council of Bhikkhus convened after the demise of the Buddha. The full explanation of this is to be found in the Sumangala-vilasini, the commentary on the Digha Nikaya by Buddhaghosa. For the convenience of readers the 34 Suttas are reviewed here in outline, a short synopsis of each being given. 
Once upon a time the Buddha, the Exalted One, accompanied by an assembly of Bhikkhus, was going along the highway between Rajagaha and Nalanda. At that time he was closely followed by Suppiya, a wanderer, and his disciple, Brahmadatta. Suppiya was denigrating the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha, but his own disciple, by contrast, was praising them. This was overheard by the Bhikkhus, who began to discuss the matter.
While the discussion was going on the Buddha arrived and preached to the Bhikkhus as follows: “If others slander me, the Dhamma, or the Sangha, you must not become angry with those slanderers, nor become depressed. On the contrary, you must investigate what they have said. When you have done so, then you may say: ‘For this reason this is not right; for this reason this is not true; this is not so among us; this is certainly not so among us. In same way, if they bestow words of praise upon us, you must not be elated or delighted.” This is what he preached.

Thursday, October 6, 2011

Introduction of Peace and Harmony in this World

In modern today the world introduce to still facing any kinds of unwholesome way of harmful things and the world is still facing the unwholesome characteristics and the harmful things on account of the irritation, dissatisfaction, disharmony, social problems, cultural and religious barriers and seems to lost sight of harmony although the senior leaders in different parts of the world are always trying to seek the real harmony of the world. Human being of any background are constantly trying to gain the upper hand in politic, business, social, religious and cultural conditions. And the people are likely trying to win the upper hand in any social, econimic, mothed of any conditions as well. 
For these conditions, different problems against the harmony arise among the beings. Ever since the dawn of civilization, the conflicts, unwholesome, harmful things and problems have been arousing in human being, among societies, countries, environment and even among the members of family which is called the smallest area of association and society in the world and other side of area in the group of family too.

Monday, October 3, 2011


1.     Tipitakadhara=Bearer of the Tipitaka ('recitation or oral'),
2.     Tipitakadhara Tipitakakawida =Bearer of the Tipitaka ('oral' and 'written'),
3.     Maha Tipitakakawida=Passing the 'oral' and 'written' with distinction,
4.     Dhammabhandagarika=Keeper of the Dhamma Treasure.
The above Titles are being awarded to the successful Buddhist monks out of over 400,000 members of the Sangha in the Union of Myanmar (Burma) if the candidates can recite Pali Texts of (8026) pages of Tipitaka canons (more than 2.4 million words in Myanmar Pali) and the written portion of over (200) books of Pali Texts, Athakatha (Commentaries) and Tika (Sub-Commentaries) of Tipitaka Canons respectively
Other yearly examinations being held regularly in Myanmar (Burma) with a view to promoting and flourishing the Pariyatti Sasana (Learning the Buddha's teachings) mainly contributing to the purification, perpetuation and propagation of the Buddha Sasana throughout the world are : — (2) Dhammacariya Examination (3) Pathamagyi Examination (4) Pathamalat Examination (5) Pathamange Examination (6) Abhidhamma/Visudhimagga Examination (only for Laymen and Nuns) and (7) Five Nikaya Examination.
The Tipitakadhara Tipitakakovida Selection Examination is the most extensive, most difficult and profound and highest, and so it has been separately held since 1949 (1310 ME). Buddhist monks who wish to sit for this Sacred Tipitakadhara Tipitakakovida Selection Examination must have passed at least the Pathamagyi Examination. In fact, the Sacred Tipitakadhara Tipitakakovida Selection Examination is quite different from other religious Examinations because the candidates who will sit for this examination must have to take (33) days. They have to meet both oral and written portions as prescribed.
Only candidates who have got through both oral and written portions of the Sacred Tipitakadhara Tipitakakovida Selection Examination will be presented the Title of Tipitakadhara Tipitakakovida and candidates who have got through the oral portion will be presented the Title of Tipitakadhara. It is further learnt that only (11) Sasana Azanis (Religious Heroes) distinctively emerged during (56) years of the Sacred Tipitakadhara Tipitakakovida Selection Examination from 1949 to 2004 (1310 to 1366 ME). In fact, over ten-thousand Buddhist monks appeared for this sacred Examination during the period of (56) years. Out of them, only (11) distinctively got through the oral and the written portion of Pali Canons and other Pali Texts during the period of (56) years.
Tipitakadhara Selection Examination is the most extensive, most difficult and profound and highest. No one passed any of the categories in 1948 when it was first held in Rangoon (now Yangon) just after the country gained Independence from British Rule. The aim of the examination was to promote the emergence of the outstanding personalities who can memorize and recite the whole of the Tipitaka.

Sunday, October 2, 2011

The Story of Thera Tissa

While residing at the Jetavana monastery in Savatthi, the Buddha uttered Verses (3) and (4) of this book, with reference to Thera Tissa.
Tissa, son of the Buddha's maternal aunt, was at one time staying with the Buddha. He had become a bhikkhu only in his old age, but he posed as a senior bhikkhu and was very pleased when visiting bhikkhus asked his permission to do some service for him. On the other hand, he failed to perform the duties expected of junior bhikkhus; besides, he often quarrelled with the younger bhikkhus. Should anyone rebuke him on account of his behaviour he would go complaining to the Buddha, weeping, very much dissatisfied and very upset. The others also followed him to the presence of the Buddha. The Buddha told them not to harbour thoughts of enmity, for enmity could only be appeased by not harbouring enmity.
Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:
Verse 3:. "He abused me, he ill-treated me, he got the better of me, he stole my belongings;"... the enmity of those harbouring such thoughts cannot be appeased.
Verse 4 "He abused me, he ill-treated me, he got the better of me, he stole my belongings;" ... the enmity of those not harbouring such thoughts can be appeased.
At the end of the discourse, one hundred thousand bhikkhus attained Sotapatti Fruition.