Buddhist World For All Being to be warmly welcome Here, Gift Men Seize Time And Work As Their Opportunity, They made Them Great And Crown

Friday, September 30, 2011

Introduction to the Evolution of Tipitaka with reference to the Three Buddhist Councils

It is known from the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta of Dīghanikāya that the Buddha advised his Noble disciples to ascertain the Buddha’s teachings in four ways in case of the misinterpretation of the doctrine.       The statement made soon after the Great Demise of the Buddha by an immoral monk named Subhadda who joined the Order in his old age and various difficulties faced by the disciples of the Sangha led to the gathering of five hundred Arahant Therās under the leadership of Mahākassapa patronized by king Ajātasatthu. It was held for seven months.
This gathering of Mahā Therās to recite the Buddha’s doctrine in its pristine purity was known as the First Buddhist Council or Pancasatikā. A complete description of this council is found in the Pancastikakkhadaka of Cullavaggapāli. The main objective of the First Buddhist council was to organize and canonize the teachings of the Buddha paving the way for the formation of Pitakas or Baskets. Only Dhamma and Vinaya were recited. Dhamma was classified into four Nikāyas forming Sutta Pitaka. Namely;
  1. Dīghanikāya            ( long Discourses)
  2. Majjhimanikāya       ( Middle length Discourses)
  3. Sayuttanikāya       ( Kindred sayings)
  4. Anguttaranikāya       ( Minor sayings)

How to stop worrying and start a new life

We would like to present a little bit more about the second Ultimate Reality discussed in Abhidhammattha Sańgaha is the analytical and classification of mental factor of worry which means Kukkuca-Cetasika. Kukkacca is synonym for worry or remorse after having done wrong. Its characteristic is subsequent regret. Its function is to sorrow over what has and what has not been done. It is manifested as remorse. Its proximate cause is what has and what has not been done there is wrong of commission and omission. It is the mental state of one who repents on whatever misdeeds performed by him in the past, on the one hand and good meritorious deeds undone on the other hand. It is remorse and repentance. The characteristic is subsequent regret over and over again. To be sorrowful in this manner is a hindrance to the right path. Whenever worry arises you are distracted from leading the Noble Path. This mental factor too is associated with the consciousness rooted in Hatred.
However it exercises when such worry really disturbs the person. As we first introduced in strategy of life once, you are given many opportunities to choose between being kind and being right. You have chances to point out to someone their mistakes or worry, things they could or should have done differently, ways they can improve. You have chances to "correct" people, privately as well as in front of others. What all these opportunities amount to are chances to make someone else feel bad, and yourself feel bad in the process.
Without getting too psychoanalytical about it, the reason we are tempted to put others down, correct them, or show them how we're right and they're wrong is that our ego mistakenly believes that if we point out how someone else is wrong, we must be right, and therefore we will fell better or to stop worrying and start a new life. To a large degree, the measure of our peace of mind is determined by how much we are able to live in the present moment of life. Irrespective of what happened yesterday or last year, and what may or may not happen tomorrow, the present moment is where you are-always!
Without question, many of us have mastered the neurotic art of spending much of our lives worrying about a variety of things--all at once. We allow past problems and future concerns to dominate our present moments, so much so that we end up anxious, frustrated, depressed, worry lamentation and hopeless. On the flip side, we also postpone our gratification, our stated priorities, and our happiness, often convincing ourselves that "someday" will be better than today. Unfortunately, the same mental dynamics that tell us to look toward the future will only repeat themselves so that "someday" never actually arrives. For instance, Society programs us to worry. It’s the reason why we buy unnecessary insurance. How often, as a kid, did you hear something like “you’d better start worrying about your future”? We’ve developed an anxiety culture, partly because it shifts said insurance and the health-and-safety industry. The recession that started in someday is as much as a perception fuelled by media as it is an economic reality.

The Origin of Cave Monasteries

There are many cave monasteries in Buddhist literature. (1) The Buddha met Sakka when he was living in the Sāla Guhā. (2) Mahākassapa Thera had lived for a long time in the Pippali Guhā. (3) Pacceka Buddhas had lived in the Nandasāla Guhā. (4) The Thera Gātha mentions about many caves as abodes of monks (monk dwelling caves). After the Buddha passed away, the First Buddhist Council was held at Saptapanni Guhā. The caves were prevalent both in India and SriLanka as religious settlements. The caves in India are different from those in Srilanka. In India rock is cut, and cells and chambers were made out of mountain rock for religious settlements. For example, the caves of Bihar and Ajanta as they really are.
The Buddha first preached the nissayas(needs) to the monks. According to these four nissāyas, monks had to live under trees. (Pindāpata nissāya, Pansakūla nissāya, Rukkhamūla sensāna nissāya and Putimutta besajjha nissāya) But later the Buddha allowed the monks to accept five kinds of dwellings. Namely: (1) Vihāra – Ordinary Residences, (2) Uddhayoga - Round Residences, (3) Pāsāda – Long Residences, (4)   Hammīya – Upstairs’ Residences and (5)  Guhā – Caves.  
In Sri Lanka, the cave monasteries at the very beginning were natural. There were no architectural embellishments whatsoever except for the drip-ledge cut on the top. The caves in Srilanka had been named according to their natural situation. The following names were given to the caves. (1) Sihamukha - lion 's Mouth, (2) Piyadasana - Fascinating view Sight, (3) Manorama - Delighting to the mind and (4) Supadite - Well-Sighted.

History of Stupa

Sri Lankan Architecture developed due to the influence of Buddhism as follow (1) Residential Units (Sanghārāma), (2) Ecclesiastical Units (Uposata Sāla) and (3) Ritual or Sacred Units. There are various views about the origin of stūpa. According to Furgoson, 117 years before in India, there had been Vedic stūpas. The origin of those stūpas was connected with cemetery. The term used was “Smashanā”. There were two types of Smashanā. One was square shape. The other was circular. Normally, in a stūpa inside the matrix, there had been a square shaped place to enshrine relics. During the time of the Buddhas, the Sākyans also made stūpa with ashes kept inside. Therefore it was a general belief that the origin of stūpa has a connection with cemetery. Moreover, Agravala has given an idea of a Hiraniya Stūpa. It was a symbol of Vedic Brahman. The Buddhists on other hand considered stūpa as a symbol of the Buddha. According to Buddhism, there are four people who deserve the construction of a stūpa. (1) The Fully Enlightened One – The Buddha, (2) The Enlightened One for Himself – Pacceka Buddha, (3) Arahant  – Arahanta Buddha and (4) Wheel Rolling Monarch – Cakkavatti Rāja
.Mahāparinibbāna Sutta of Dīghanikāya
During the life time of the Buddha, stūpas were constructed enshrining the ashes of Sāriputta and Moggallāna Therās. Ananda Thera questioned the Buddha how he should treat the Buddha's Body after the Buddha had passed away. The Buddha advised him to do all the necessary activities thus as in the case of Cakkavatti king.  According to Sarvastivāda Vinaya, It is said that Anāthapindika had obtained Buddha's Hair and Nails and constructed a stupa. According to Mahāsangika Vinaya, the Buddha Himself had constructed a stūpa for Kassapa Buddha. Therefore we observe that the origin of the Buddhist stūpa runs far back to the time of the Buddha. The term stūpa had been given to four sacred places. Namely: (1) the place where Bodhisatta was born. (2) The place where He attained Enlightenment. (3) The place where the First Preaching of Dhamma was made. (4) The place where the Great Demise of the Buddha took place. After the Great Demise of the Buddha, many kings were eager to collect Relics for the purpose of constructing stūpas. Mahāparinibbāna Sutta of Dīgha Nikāya explains clearly how the Relics were distributed. The following were the kings and Brahmins who obtained Relics for the construction of stupās. King Ajasatta of Rajagaha,Bullis of Allakappa,Mallas of Kusinara and Pava,Licchavis of Vesali,Brahmin Drona etc. All those people took ashes and constructed stupas and paid respect. Later on in India King Asoka constructed 84,000 stupas.

Thursday, September 29, 2011

The Cave Monasteries of Srilanka

In SriLnaka there were 1200 caves in all parts of the island. The following can be listed as the most prominent cave monasteries in Srilanka. (1) Mihintale, (2) Rajagirilena(near Mihintale), (3) Hatthikucchi, (4) Vessagiri, (5) Isurumuniya, (6) Ritigala, (7) Cittalapbbata, (8) Sigiriya, (9) Dambulla, (10) Hindagala and (11) Kurundakalena.
Mahida Thera first lived in a cave monastery at Mihintale. Later king Devanampiyatissa offered the Tissarāma Vihāra to Mahinda Thera. But he preferred to live at Mihintale. King Devanampiyatissa offered 68 caves to the Sangha. A drip-ledge was carved on the top of the cave to ward off water.
2. Rajagirilena
It is also at Mihintale near Kaludiyapokuna. It is called the king's cave. Since the king of Srilanka had come to this cave on the full moon day to meditate under the Kalutimbiri tree. It is said that king Saddatissa listened to the dhamma preaching of Kalkarama Sutta by Kālabuddharakkhita thera under the Kalutimbiri tree whole night.
3. Hatthikucchi
This is the centre of meditation for the forest monks. A royal prince who was enticed by the natural beauty and the silence of this cave is supposed to have got ordained at this place. Later king Aggbodhi built Pāsāda. After that, the natural cave lost its original form.
4. Vessagiri
This is the name given forest bound cluster of rocks in Anurādhapura. There are about 25 rock caves. They serve as shelter for the forest monks. There were inscriptions below the drip-ledge on the grouts of the cave. Vessagiri is a huge rock boulder divided into three categories as A, B, C. These caves were later developed. There are traces of frescoes and paintings. During the period of king Walagamba, grants were given to those cave monasteries.

Saturday, September 24, 2011

Wisdom and Intuitive Awareness

Awareness is your refuge:
Awareness of the changingness of feelings,
of attitudes, of moods, of material change
and emotional change:
Stay with that, because it’s a refuge that is
It’s not something that changes.
It’s a refuge you can trust in.
This refuge is not something that you create.
It’s not a creation. It’s not an ideal.
It’s very practical and very simple, but
easily overlooked or not noticed.
When you’re mindful,
you’re beginning to notice,
it’s like this.
Represented By တကၠသုိလ္ျမတ္မင္း

Wednesday, September 21, 2011

Buddhist Attitude to Politics

Kūṭadanṭa and Aggañña Sutta are very important as far as Buddhist Attitude to politics. According to Kūṭadanṭa sutta, one country was full of many trouble people. It means Dassukhila in Pāli. If we take society as the physical body, the trouble oppresses like a thorn in our body. Then it makes many problems until eliminate it.
At the time, the Bodhisatta advised the king like that; “You should not do such a killing sacrifice. You have to do organize the society step by step according to following progress, in Pāli Saṅvidhāna”. First one is Kasigorakkha-bījabhatta. There are people engaged in agriculture. They have to maintain animals. Without animals, they can’t do that agriculture. For those, you have to distribute seed and food. Second one is Vānijja-Pabhata. In consequence of agriculture, in your country, there are many people engaged in trading. For those, you have to provide capital to trade easily. The last one is Rājaporisa-Bhattavetana. There are many people serve in the government. For those, you have to give proper living salaries and food in order to serve happily.

The Stūpas of SriLanka

Under the Stūpas of Sri Lanka, there are as follow: (1) Ruvanveliseya in Anuradhapura Bubbulākāra Kirivehara and Rankotvehera in Polonnruva. (2) Kelaniya Stūpa Dhānyakāra Thūpārāma also had this shape at the beginning. Abhayagiri and Jetavana stūpas earlier had this shape. (According to Roland Silve) (3) Demalamahāseya in Polonnaruwa had this shape. Padmākāra(According to Prof. Paranavitana). (4) Mahiyāngana stupa Ghantākāra. (5) Kirivehera of Kataragama and Somavati Stūpa Ghatākāra (According to Roland Silva). The development and the expansion of Residential Units gave rise to the establishment of monuments of worship. The striking feature during the Anuradhapura period is the pre-dominance of the stūpa over the entire religious architecture. During the pre-Buddhist era,there were two stupas in Sri Lanka. One was at Mahiyāngana. The other called Girihanduseya was at Tiriyaya.
The first stūpa in SrinLanka was accepted as Thūparāma constructed by king Devanampiyatissa (250 – 210 B.C) According to tradition,the collar bone of the Buddha is enshrined in this stūpa. The Thūpavasa mentions that at the beginning it took the shape of a heap of paddy – Dhānyakāra. Later, due to repairs at various times, today it stands according to restoration. King Vasabha constructed a Cetiyaghara.
Mahāthūpa (Ruwanweliseya)
The Mahāthūpa now referred to as Ruvanveliseya was built by king Dutugemunu. This stūpa gained a prominent place among all the other stūpas. The stūpa took the shape of a bubble – Bubbulākāra. The matrix of this stūpa was bubble shaped. King Saddhatissa built the square structure above the matrix (Harmikā) and also Chatra. King Amandagamini Abhya is said to have placed a second Chatra above it. King Sanghatissa provided a ring of crystal – Vajra Cumbaka on the top of the Mahāthūpa and fixed four gems at the four sides of the square structure.


In religion, there are some ways to help those who are dead. In Brahmanism, they perform sacrifice for the good of the departed one, Preta. There were some materialists who criticize that practice saying that as there is no future life, it is useless to perform meritorious activities and try to transfer merits. But in other religions, there are some practices. In the Theravada Buddhism, the transference of merit is undertaken. 
Once, the King Bimbisāra performed the alms-giving for the Buddha and His disciples. On that very night, some relations of the King appeared  in  the  dream  and  showed  him  their  plight  and  requested  to perform  good  activities  and  transfer merit. The King could not understand the problem and he went to the Buddha and consulted Him how to help his dead relations.  The Buddha  preached  the  Tirokuṭṭa-sutra  and  advised  the King  how  to  help  his relations.
In Mahāyāna,  especially  Vaijrayāna,  they  also  have  special  sutra  preached  by  the  Buddha  and translated  from  Sanskrit  by  venerable  Dharmaraka.  Venerable Moggalyāna was able to develop the spiritual attainment and become an Arahant. As soon as he became an Arahant, he wanted to find out where his mother was staying after her death. He was disappointment when he found out what happened. He found she had been born in the realm of a hungry ghost.


In  the  stream  of  Buddhism,  there  are  at  least  three  branches;  Theravāda,  Mahāyāna  and Vaijarayāna. This Vaijayāna has further names Tantrayāna and Mahāyāna. The approaches to the problems are different in these schools. It is said thinking about the mentality and the ability of business, the Buddha introduced these three schools of Buddhism. The three words used in Vaijrayāna have different meanings related to the thought in the school. If we take Vaijrayāna, there Vaijra means diamond and it shows that it is very strong and durable. Therefore Vaijrayāna appeared have been the strongest school of Buddhism which will be popular among people.
Mantrayāna is a very short formula which is useful protection. By using the Mantra, one can get protection and face danger. A well known Mantra is “Um! Manipadame Hum! Mantra comes from Man. Man means mind. Tra comes from Tran and Trāna means protection. So Mantra means protection of the mind. Therefore Mantarayāna tries to help to protect the mind of the person. Again, Tantra is a piece of thread. The thread is something that continues, binds and covers all forms of knowledge. Therefore, this particular Buddhist school has these three characteristics.

The significant of the Wheel of Truth (Dhammacakkapavattana Sutra)

Dhammacakkapavattana Sutra is first and foremost of the Sutras expounded by the Buddha as soon as He became Enlightenment. He had preached it to the five group of ascetic at the Deer Park near Benares on the full moon day of Āsālha, July. This sutra is an entirely different from the ancient Indian philosophies and methods which were pursued by the other religious teachers regarding as truth. Dhammacakka is the name given to this first discourse of the Buddha. It is frequently represented as meaning “The Kingdom of Truth”, “The Kingdom of Righteousness”, and “The Wheel of Truth”.
According to  the  commentators,  Dharma  here  means  wisdom  or  knowledge,  and  Cakka  means  founding  or establishment. Dhammacakka therefore means the founding or establish of wisdom. Dhammacakkapavattana means The Exposition of the Establishment of Wisdom. Dharma may also be interpreted as Truth, and Cakka as Wheel. Dhammacakkapavattana would therefore mean The Turning or The Establishment of the Wheel of Truth.

Thursday, September 15, 2011

Ethical Basis of Psychotherapy

Buddhist psychotherapy means ethical basic of twenty-eight matters and Buddhist concept of Individual. Of them, individual is related to matters with reference to Aggregates, Bases, and Elements its internal and external effects. Both influence personal behaviors with regard to the Dependant Origination, and mental behaviors. If we recollect problems, they become them. They are shorted discussion psychotherapy.
In Buddhism, psychotherapy means psychiatry from the mental disorders, and Sabbe Puthujjana Ummattaka. In Buddhist Psychotherapy, there is no formal called psychotherapy but Nama and Rupa. We compare Nama and Rupa with the blind and crippled person as mental and physical. The crippled cannot walk but can see beautiful or ugly. Otherwise, the blind cannot see but can walk. They are not the same but interrelated with the two. In the same way, mental and physical connect with each other but not separated too.

The contact of Buddhist Psychotherapy

Under the contact of Buddhist Psychotherapy, It is a process but not something called mind as the unique considered in Buddhism. But human have six faculties but mind and skin as the separated with body. Hence, you cannot identify your mind (Citta) and matter (Rupa) interrelated. You can consider cause and effect when you can sleep the mental problem according to Buddhism. It said that Buddhist method of sleeping illnesses base on the defilements.
In Abhidhamma you can find Aśava or Kileśa. But people are intoxicated by Āśava. Somehow, Kileśa or Āśava depended on Lobha, Macchariya, Raga, Pema and Abhijjhā. Dośa based on Vyāpāda and Moha to Avijjā. Actually, knowing of mental diseases and treating, the foundation is very important. You inherited by all kinds of thing but understanding these mental develop in the personality. There are two kinds of human mind therefore Anunāya and Paṭigha.

Methods of Buddhist Psychotherapy

Here under the methods of Buddhist psychotherapy, there are ten factors as follow: (1)confession (āpattidesanā), (2)imitation (Kisāgotamī and Angulimāla), (3) dialogue (Kasībhāradvāja), (4)noble-silence(San-gāmajī), (5)generalization(Present and Past stories in Jātakas), (6) psychoanalysis (Madhupindikasutta), (7)howing kamma effect (Petavatthu, Vimānavatthu),(8) right motivation (Prince Nanda), (9) innocent punishment (Ven. Channa) and (10) praising (praising to Ānanda by the Buddha).

Saturday, September 10, 2011

Samādhi as a method of psychotherapy

Under the Samādhi concerntration as a method of psychotherapy, there are three statements: (1) Vitakka and Vicara to (Paññā), (2) Pīti and Sukha to (Karunā) and (3) Ekaggatā. Of them, Vitakka and Vicāra can be development of intellectual aspect. Pīti and Sukha can develop emotional aspect. Than Ekaggatā can be the effect of these developments.  Here also Samādhi mean mental therapy how (samādhi) concentration aspect can be used as remedies method for many problems.
According to Theravada traditional method, these are six characters Lobha, Dosa, Moha, Saddā, Buddhi, and Vitakka than there are forty subjects of meditation. Some are suitable for lust character but some are suitable for faith etc. When we develop Samādhi firstly which kinds of character we belong it. The method of meditation is called Samātha. Than these three charaters: Sīla, Samādhi and Paññā. These aspects are classified to reduce the defilements for the short time. Sīla by mean of morality we reduce the defilements for the prior of time but for Samādhi long prior of time through wisdom of insight meditation completely.

Fundamentals of Buddhist Psychotherapy

In Buddhism, there are fundamentals of Buddhist Psychotherapy as follow: (1) Greed, Hatred, and Delusion, (2) Five groups of grasping, (3) Morality, Concentration, Wisdom, (4) Four Noble Truths, (5) Tadaṅga, Vikkhambhana, Samuccheda pahāna, (6) Four kinds of Food, (7) Kamma and (8) Sabbāsavasutta. Of them, the first group mentions about greed, hatred and delusion. We must understand them deeply as fundamental matters. In Visuddhimagga, we get six factors regarding with the character analysis of Lobha, Dosa, Moha, Saddā, Budhi and Vitakka.

Friday, September 9, 2011

Ancient cases of Buddhist Psychotherapy

In the Jataka stories of ancient cases of Buddhist psychotherapy there are numerous characters who have displayed hysteria type of reactions. Pathological jealousy had been described in the Jataka stories. Jealousy is a universal feeling. The feeling is normal until it is acted upon and the behavior or actions become irrational. Jealousy does not have boundaries. It penetrates all social positions, intellectual levels, ages, races and economic strata. Chulla Darmapala Jataka reveals the sexual jealousy. In this story King Pathapa became extreme angry when his queen cuddled the infant son without taking any notice of him. The angry King Pathapa orders to kill the infant.
Hence, jealousy is a complex human emotion that is provoked by a perceived threat to an exclusive dyadic relationship. Although the emotional experience of jealousy may involve varying degrees of sadness, anger, and anxiety, many psychologists have defined it globally as the sense of "distress" or "discomfort" experienced over a partner's real or imagined involvement with another. Jealousy can occur in any type of relationship, but it is most commonly associated with romantic relationships. Here the King Pathapa's emotion was anger and as a result of rage he killed his own son.

Thursday, September 8, 2011




1. Buddhist Timescale
2. Great Aeon or World Cycle (Maha-kappa)
3. Incalculable Aeon or Epoch (Asankheyya-kappa)
4. Included Aeon or Era (Antara-kappa)
5. Human Lifespan (Ayu-kappa)
6. World Cycles When Buddhas Appear (Buddha Kappa)
7. Twenty-Four Buddhas Preceding Lord Gotama Buddha
8. Eight Qualifications of a Future Buddha (Bodhisatta)
9. Length of Time to Cultivate the Perfections (Paramis)
10. Reasons for the Differences in Time to Fulfill Paramis
11. Rare is the Appearance of a Buddha
12. Eight Unfortunate Existences in Samsara (Cycle of Births)
13. The Fulfillment of the Perfections by Pacceka Buddhas,
Chief Disciples and Great Disciples
14. The Pre-eminent Disciples of the Buddha
15. References
16. Explanatory Notes
112 • Buddhism Course

1. Buddhist Timescale

In the Buddhist system of timescale, the word “kappa” meaning “cycle or aeon” is used to denote certain time-periods that repeat themselves in cyclical order. Four time-cycles are distinguished; a great aeon (maha-kappa), an incalculable aeon (asankheyya-kappa), an included aeon (antara-kappa) and a lifespan (ayu-kappa).

2. Great Aeon or World Cycle (Maha-kappa)

A maha kappa or aeon is generally taken to mean a world cycle. How long is a world cycle? In Samyutta ii, Chapter XV, the Buddha used the parables of the hill and mustard-seed for comparison:

          Suppose there was a solid mass, of rock or hill, one yojana (eight miles) wide, one yojana across and one yojana high and every hundred years, a man was to stroke it once with a piece of silk. That mass of rock would be worn away and ended sooner than would an aeon.
          Suppose there was a city of iron walls, one yojana in length, one yojana in width, one yojana high and filled with mustard-seeds to the brim. There-from a man was to take out every hundred years a mustard-seed. That great pile of mustard-seed would be emptied and ended sooner than would an aeon.

Tuesday, September 6, 2011



1. Five Vices and Five Virtues
2. Self Responsibility in Moral Training
3. Precepts are Indispensable in Moral Training
4. Dhamma Way to Compare Oneself with Another
5. First Precept: Abstention from Killing Living Beings
6. Second Precept: Abstention from Taking What is Not Given
7. Third Precept: Abstention from Sexual Misconduct
8. Fourth Precept: Abstention from False Speech
9. Fifth Precept: Abstention from Partaking of Intoxicants
10. Benefits of ‘Moderate Drinking’: Fact or Fallacy?
11. Factors that Enhance the Keeping of Precepts
12. Consequences of Breaking and Keeping the Five Precepts
13. References

Five Precepts • 145

1. Five Vices and Five Virtues

In many suttas regarding lay practice (Anguttara iii, 203), the Buddha explicitly warned of the five vices, which are dangers and enemies, and lead to hell. What are the five?

(i)                 Killing living beings
(ii)               Taking what is not given
(iii)             Sexual misconduct
(iv)                  Telling lies
(iv)             Partaking of intoxicants

• One who has these five vices lives the home-life without selfconfidence.
• One who has these five vices breeds hatred in this life or breeds hatred in the life
hereafter, feels in his mind pain and grief.
• One who has these five vices is termed 'vicious' and arises in hell.

In the same suttas, the Buddha spoke of the advantages of cultivation of the five virtues, which are the Five Precepts, namely:

(i)                 Abstention from killing living beings
(ii)               Abstention from taking what is not given
(iii)             Abstention from sexual misconduct
(iv)                  Abstention from telling lies
(iv)             Abstention from partaking of intoxicants

• One who has these five virtues lives the home-life with complete self-confidence.
• One who has these five virtues breeds no hatred in this life, or in the life hereafter, nor
does he feel pain and grief.
• One who has these five virtues is called virtuous and arises in the happy plane of

Saturday, September 3, 2011




1. Giving (Dana)
2. Factors that Strengthen the Beneficial Results of Dana
3. Volition of the Donor
4. Purity of the Recipient
5. Offering to the Order (Sanghika Dana)
6. Types of Gifts
7. Giving of Money for New Work (ava Kamma)
8. Gifts to Avoid
9. Advantages of Dana
10. Sharing or Transference of Merits (Patti-dana)
11. Transference of Merits to Departed Relatives
12. For Whom Are the Food Offerings in Pattidana Intended?
13. Can Petas partake of food and drink offered to them?
14. What Type of Beings Can Receive the Merits?
15. Chinese custom of burning paper money and paper models
of clothes, houses, etc., as offerings to the Departed
16. Rejoicing in Others' Merits (Pattanumodana)
17. References

(172)  Buddhism Course

1. Giving (Dana)

Dana literally means giving. The practice of dana is universally recognized as one of the most basic virtues. Although not a factor of the Noble Eightfold Path or a requisite of enlightenment, yet it claims a place of special eminence in the Buddha's teaching, being the beginning of the path to liberation. When the Buddha preaches to a newcomer, he starts his graduated teaching with an exposition on the virtues of giving (danakatha). Only after the person has come to appreciate this virtue would he introduce the other aspects of his teaching. Giving is the first of the Ten Paramis perfected by a Buddha. Among the Ten Bases of Meritorious Action, giving also comes first. Therefore, in the march towards enlightenment, one initially has to practise giving. This is because it is the best weapon against greed, the main cause of our suffering. Second, giving accompanied by wholesome volitions will lead to happy rebirth and less suffering in our next life. Third and most important, when giving is accompanied by the intention for the noble state, it acts as a condition for the development of morality, concentration and wisdom, the three stages of the Noble Eightfold Path that lead to the end of suffering.

Friday, September 2, 2011

Dependent Origination

                                        WHERE is the true Man’s Nibbana?
                                             Is it where he by chance is born?
                                             Dot not the yearning spirit scorn
                                             In such scants borders to be spanned?
                                                    O, yes! His Nibbana must be
                                            As the Dependent Origination wide and free!
             Is it alone where freedom is,
                                           Where being is being and Man is Man?
                                           Dot he not claim a broader span
                                           For the Non-Soul’s love of home than this?
                                                     O, yes! His Nibbana must be
                                          As the Dependent Origination wide and free!

Dependent Arising of Life

                     Happy the man, whose wish and care
                                  A few paternal ours bound,
                                  Content to breathe his native air,
                                               In His own Dependent Origination is Ground.

                                 Whose herds with milk, whose fields with bread,
                                 Whose flocks supply him with attire;
                                 Whose trees in summer yield him shade,
                                               In winter fire of dependent Arising.



1. Difference between Rebirth and Reincarnation
2. How Rebirth Takes Place
3. The Re-linking or Rebirth Consciousness.
4. Modes of Death
5. Objects Presented to the Mind before Death
6. Five Visions of a Dying Person
7. The Dying Consciousness
8. Modes of Birth
9. Four Planes of Existence.
10. References
88 • Buddhism Course

1. Difference between Rebirth and Reincarnation

All religions believe in an after-life. However the Buddhist doctrine of rebirth should be differentiated from the transmigration and reincarnation of other systems, because Buddhism denies the existence of a transmigrating permanent soul, created by a God or emanating from a Paramatma (Supreme or Universal Soul). Buddhism does not believe in any sort of transmigration. There is nothing that comes out of one body and enters another. Events take place according to the Law of Dependent Origination or Paticca Samuppada. Everything comes into existence depending on an instance previous to it and everything must also give rise to an instance, depending on itself.
In the Paticca Samuppada, the Buddha mentioned that Craving gives rise to Clinging, that to Becoming (or the continuity of the life-process actuated by Kamma) and that to Birth. The Craving of the dying man must give rise to Clinging, that to the continuity of the life-process of Becoming through Kamma (Kammabhava), and that to Birth. This is in line with the Second Noble Truth whereby craving gives rise to a new being consisting of the five aggregates of clinging which are suffering.

2. How Rebirth Takes Place
Starting with the conception of a human, the Buddha said that a germ of life is planted only when three conditions are met. Mother and father must unite, it is the mother’s period (ovum is ripe) and “the being to be born " is present. For a being to be born here, a being with craving for Becoming must die somewhere. It should not be taken to mean that “a being to be born or soul is waiting for the egg and sperm to unite and then enter it.” Parents only provide us with the cellular material in the rebirth process. This does not mean that all beings require parents for their birth because there are beings that are reborn spontaneously, depending on their Kamma.
Doctrine of Rebirth • 89



1. What is the Law of Dependent Origination?
2. How does the Law of Dependent Origination work?
3. Question of the First Cause
4. Dependent Origination is different from direct causation
5. Dependent Origination to explain the Origin of Suffering
6. Reverse Order of Dependent Origination to explain the
Cessation of Suffering.
7. References
8. Explanatory Notes

64. Buddhism Course

1. What is the Law of Dependent Origination?

According to this law, every phenomenon owes its origin to another phenomenon prior to it. It may simply be expressed as “depending on this, this originates”. An example of Dependent Origination in nature is given below: There being clouds in the sky it rains. It having rained, the road becomes slippery. The road becoming slippery, a man falls down. The man having fallen down becomes injured. Here a shower of rain depends on the clouds in the sky. The road becoming slippery depends on the rain. The fall of the man depends on the road becoming slippery. The injury of the man depends upon his fall:

If there were no clouds in the sky, it would not have rained. Then the road would not have become slippery. Then the man would not have fallen. Then he would not have become injured.

2. How does the Law of Dependent Origination work?

In this chain of events, we see one incident depends on one prior to it and gives rise to one after it. Everything that we find in this world can be brought in a chain of dependence like this. Nothing can originate without depending on something else previous to it, and no originated thing can be conceived of, which does not give rise to something else in its turn. Thus the process goes on. Anything can be traced upwards to where it originated from and everything can also be traced downwards to that which is produced depending on it.

Dependent Origination

3. Question of the First Cause

Here an objection can be raised as to what was the first cause or where does the process of causation end? In primitive times, people saw the wonders of nature and became curious to get some satisfactory explanation of them. Being ignorant of the Law of Dependent Origination and out of fear of the unknown forces of nature, they naturally tried to explain them by superstitious belief in gods or goddesses. The primitive man believed that the wind blows because the Wind God goes in a procession to get married. If science had accepted it and did not trace it according to the Law of Dependent Origination, we would not have known that the movement of wind is due to differences of atmospheric pressure. A theistic or superstitious explanation puts an end to all free inquiry. We cannot ask, who created the God or depending on what the God originates. Here there is an absolute check in the advancement of knowledge. The Law of Dependent Origination does not investigate into the first cause, for the very concept of a ‘first cause’ means a stop to further advancement of knowledge. Regarding the first beginning of beings, the Buddha has said: “Inconceivable, monks, is the beginning of this Samsara (cycle of birth and death), not to be discovered is any first beginning of beings who obstructed by ignorance and ensnared by craving, are running and faring in this round of rebirths”.

4. Dependent Origination is different from direct causation

The Law of Causation as understood by Aristotle and others considers the cause and effect as two distinct events, one producing the other. According to Dependent Origination, two events cannot be considered as quite distinct from one another, for there are links of the same process, which admits of no break. No single event in the world is ever isolated. A cause by itself cannot stand.